Peppercorns are one of the most used Indian spices across the globe. Peppercorns are produced from pepper plants. Scientific name of pepper is Piper nigrum and this plant belongs to the family Piperaceae. It is an evergreen, tender, perennial climbing vine that prefers partial shade for its growth. The plant reaches up to a height of 400cm and spread of 400cm upon full growth. Dried fruits of pepper plants are known as "peppercorns". There are black, white, green and red peppercorns depending on the harvesting stage and processing of the mature fruits. Most popular peppercorns are black peppercorns and white peppercorns. Black pepper contains about 3% essential oil, and white pepper contains 1.5%. In addition to these, dried green peppercorns and red peppercorns are also available in the market.